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The Complete Lean Shop
Glossary - C

C Chart - (1) A chart used to monitor the number of defects in a production process. (2)An attributes control chart that is used to monitor the number of nonconformities, such as defects per subgroup. The subgroup size must remain constant for this type of chart.

- aka Corrective Action.

Calibration Verification
- See Calibration

Calibration -
The comparison of a measurement instrument or system of unverified accuracy to a measurement instrument or system of known accuracy to detect any variation from the required performance specification.

- (1) Likelihood a product will meet specification. (2) The capability of a process is how the process performs when compared to specification limits or requirements. It uses a series of indices: Cp, Cpk, Cr, and Cpm. (3) The total range of inherent variation in a stable process determined by using data from control charts.

Capability Analysis
- (1) A study to determine the extent of the actual variation against that required or specified. See process capability. (2) A set of statistical calculations performed on a set of data to assess how the distribution formed by the data compares to specifications or requirements.

Capability Maturity Model (CMM) -
A framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. It’s an evolutionary improvement path from an immature process to a mature, disciplined process. The CMM covers practices for planning, engineering and managing software development and maintenance to improve the ability of organizations to meet goals for cost, schedule, functionality and product quality.

Capability Maturity Model Integration
- See CMMI

Capable Process - A process is said to be capable if nearly 100% of its output falls within specification limits.

Capacity Constraint Resources - A series of nonbottlenecks (based on the sequence in which jobs are performed) that can act as a constraint.

Capacity - The maximum amount a process, machine, or system can produce.

Cartesian Management
- Seeing events or causal factors as separate and independent and managing accordingly. System management, on the other hand, acknowledges the complex interrelationships among the various factors and the dynamics of cause and effect over time. This latter view is part of what Deming refers to when he speaks of appreciation for a system.

Cascading -
The continuing flow of the quality message down to, not through, the next level of supervision until it reaches all workers. Also see “deployment.”

- Term used to describe the iterative nature of the Hoshin planning process.

- The act of placing strengths and weakness into categories in generic internal assessment.

- Causal relation two variables are causally related if changes in the value of one cause the other to change. Two variables can be associated without having any causal relation, and even if two variables have a causal relation, their correlation can be small or zero.

Cause and Effect (or Fishbone or Ishikawa) Diagram - A diagram designed to help workers focus on the causes of a problem rather than the symptoms.. It is also referred to as the “Ishikawa diagram,” because Kaoru Ishikawa developed it, and the “fishbone diagram,” because the complete diagram resembles a fish skeleton. The diagram illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom). The cause and effect diagram is one of the “seven tools of quality” OR aTool for analyzing process dispersion.

Cause and Effect Matrix
- A tool used to help quantify team consensus on relationships thought to exist between key input and key output variables. The results lead to other activities such as an FMEA, creating multi-vari charts, doing an ANOVA, regression analysis or doe.

Cause -
An identified reason for the presence of a defect or problem.

- Cause and Effect Diagram with the addition of cards. Developed by Ryuji Fukuda, author of managerial engineering, this variation of the "fishbone" diagram is modified as needed simply by moving the cards (or "post-its") containing the information.

Cell -
An arrangement of people, machines, materials and equipment in which the processing steps are placed next to each other in sequential order and through which parts are processed in a continuous flow. The most common cell layout is a U shape.

Cellular Manufacturing -
(a.k.a. U-Shaped Cells, Work Cells) (1) Generally a horseshoe or U-Shaped work area layout that enables workers to easily move from one process to another in close proximity and pass parts between workers with little effort. "Cells" typically focus on the production of specific models in "part families" but can be adjusted to many different products as needed. (2) Arranging machines in the correct process sequence, with operators remaining within the cell and materials presented to them from outside.

Centerline - A line on a graph that represents the overall average (mean) operating level of the process.

Central Limit Theorem
- States that the probability histograms of the sample mean and sample sum of n draws with replacement from a box of labeled tickets converge to a normal curve as the sample size n grows.

Central Location - Central location is the center of a set of data points. Mean, median, and mode are the statistics used to describe it.

Central Tendency:
(1) The tendency of data gathered from a process to cluster toward a middle value somewhere between the high and low values of measurement. (2) Statistics such as the mean, median, and mode are said to be measures of central tendency.

Certificate of Compliance
- A document signed by an authorised party affirming that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract, or regulation.

Certificate of Conformance (certificate of conformity)
- A document signed by an authorized party affirming that a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract, or regulation.

- The procedure and action by a duly authorized body of determining, verifying, and attesting in writing to the qualifications of personnel, processes, procedures, or items in accordance with applicable requirements.

Certification Audits
- Audits relating to registration (e.g., ISO 9000 audits).

Certification -
The result of a person meeting the established criteria set by a certificate granting organization.

Chain of customers - A philosophy that espouses the idea that each worker’s “customer” is the next worker in the chain of people that produce a finished product or service.

Chain Reaction - A chain of events described by W. Edwards Deming: improve quality, decrease costs, improve productivity, increase market with better quality and lower price, stay in business, provide jobs and provide more jobs.

Chain Sampling Plan - In acceptance sampling, a plan in which the criteria for acceptance and rejection apply to the cumulative sampling results for the current lot and one or more immediately preceding lots.

Champion - A business leader or senior manager who ensures resources are available for training and projects, and who is involved in periodic project reviews; also an executive who supports and addresses Six Sigma organizational issues.

Chance Variation
, Chance Error - A random variable can be decomposed into a sum of its expected value and chance variation around its expected value. The expected value of the chance variation is zero; the standard error of the chance variation is the same as the standard error of the random variable---the size of a "typical" difference between the random variable and its expected value.

- In the context of quality management, this means to move from one state of operation to another state of operation.

Change Agent(s) -
Person(s) who lead a company from the traditional manufacturing practices and philosophies to becoming a Lean organization. OR An individual from within or outside an organization who facilitates change in the organization; might be the initiator of the change effort, but not necessarily.

Changeover Time - (1) The time required to modify a system or workstation, usually including both teardown time for the existing condition and setup time for the new condition. (2) A process in which a production device is assigned to perform a different operation or a machine is set up to make a different part—for example, a new plastic resin and new mold in an injection molding machine. OR Switching from producing one part/product to another is generally known as a changeover.  

Characteristic -
(1) The factors, elements or measures that define and differentiate a process, function, product, service or other entity. (2) A distinguishing feature of a process or its output on which variables or attributes data can be collected.

Chart - A tool for organizing, summarizing and depicting data in graphic form.

Charter - A written commitment approved by management stating the scope of authority for an improvement project or team.

Chebychev's Inequality
- For every number k>0, the fraction of elements in a list that are k sd's or further from the arithmetic mean of the list is at most 1/k2. For random variables: for every number k>0, the probability that a random variable x is k ses or further from its expected value is at most 1/k2.

Checkpoint - Control item with a means (factor); requires immediate judgment and handling must be checked on a daily basis.

Check sheet -
(1) A simple data recording device. The check sheet is custom designed by the user, which allows him or her to readily interpret the results. The check sheet is one of the “seven tools of quality” (see listing). Check sheets are often confused with checklists (see listing). (2) Data-gathering tools that can be used in forming histograms. The check sheets can be either tabular or schematic. OR A tool for ensuring all important steps or actions in an operation have been taken. Checklists contain items important or relevant to an issue or situation. Checklists are often confused with check sheets (see listing).

Chi-Square Curve
- A family of curves that depend on a parameter called degrees of freedom (df). The chi-square curve is an approximation to the probability histogram of the chi-square statistic for multinomial model if the expected number of outcomes in each category is large. The balance point of the curve is df, So the expected value of the corresponding random variable would equal df. The standard error of the corresponding random variable would be (2_df)_. As df grows, the shape of the chi-square curve approaches the shape of the normal curve.

Chi-Square Statistic
- (1) Used to measure the agreement between categorical data and a multinomial model that predicts the relative frequency of outcomes in each possible category. (2) A goodness-of-fit-test statistic used to test the assumption that the distribution of a set of data is similar to the expected distribution, such as a normal distribution.

Classification of Defects -
The listing of possible defects of a unit, classified according to their seriousness. Note: Commonly used classifications: class A, class B, class C, class D; or critical, major, minor and incidental; or critical, major and minor. Definitions of these classifications require careful preparation and tailoring to the product(s) being sampled to ensure accurate assignment of a defect to the proper classification. A separate acceptance sampling plan is generally applied to each class of defects.

Closed-Loop Corrective Action (CLCA) - A sophisticated engineering system to document, verify and diagnose failures, recommend and initiate corrective action, provide follow-up and maintain comprehensive statistical records. Code of conduct: Expectations of behavior mutually agreed on by a team.

- To bring to a completion, as in a meeting, when a topic or task is finished and the group is ready to move on or to end the meeting.

- Capability Maturity Model Integration

Coefficient of Variance - A ratio that measures the significance of the standard deviation in relation to the mean

Collaborative - An agreement or a relationship in which two or more parties work together (co-labor) on a task of mutual interest.

Co-Location -
Physically locating personnel and product lines in a single area thereby enabling rapid and constant communication among the key personal responsible for those products.

Common Cause
- (1) A source of variation that is acting on or common to all outcomes of a process. It is constantly present but its influence may vary over time. (2) Natural or random variation that is inherent in a process over time, affecting every outcome of the process. If a process is in control it has common cause variation only. (3) A source of variation that is inherent in a system and is predictable. A control chart identifies a system with only common causes of variation. Common causes of variation affect all individual values of a system, and can be eliminated only by a systemic change.

Common Causes -
Causes of variation that are inherent in a process over time. They affect every outcome of the process and everyone working in the process. Also see “special causes.”

Company Culture - A system of values, beliefs and behaviors inherent in a company. To optimize business performance, top management must define and create the necessary culture.

Comparative Analysis -
To focus a problem-solving team on a problem. To help get to the root cause of a problem. It is just as important to answer what the problem isn’t as it is to answer what the problem is. This directs the problem-solving team on where to look for the root cause and where not to look.

- (1) To pay or remunerate for some work; (2) To make up for some lack of ability or acuity.

- An organization's formal system of wages or salary and other benefits such as insurance, holidays, retirement, vacation, etc. [See also reward system].

- Demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills (ISO 9000:2000 - 3.9.12)

- Recovery process, process associated with resolving complaints.

Complaint Tracking -
Collecting data, disseminating them to appropriate persons for resolution, monitoring complaint resolution progress and communicating results.

Complementary Products - Products that use similar technologies and can coexist in a family of products.

Compliance and Affirmative
- Indication or judgment that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract, or regulation; also the state of meeting the requirements.

Compliance -
The state of an organization that meets prescribed specifications, contract terms, regulations or standards.

- Any raw material, substance, piece, part, software, firmware, labeling, or assembly which is intended to be included as part of the finished, packaged, and labeled device.

Component Reliability -
 The propensity for a part to fail over a given time.

Components Search
- A approach to interchanging components in product in order to identify those that result in poor performance.

Computer Aided Design (CAD) -
(1) A type of software used by architects, engineers, drafters and artists to create precision drawings or technical illustrations. CAD software can be used to create 2-D drawings or 3-D models. (2) A system for digitally developing product designs.

Computer aided engineering (CAE) - A broad term used by the electronic design automation industry for the use of computers to design, analyze and manufacture products and processes. CAE includes CAD (see listing) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM), which is the use of computers for managing manufacturing processes.

Computer-Aided Design
- aka CAD - A system for digitally developing product designs.

Computer-Aided Inspection (CAI) - A system for performing inspection through the use of technology. For example, some systems use infrared to detect defects.

Computer-Aided Testing (CAT) - Technology for taking tests or examinations.

Computer-Based Training
- A form of training that uses specialized software, known as courseware, to address specific topics.

Concentration Diagrams -
Are used to show the location of errors or defects. For either capturing or displaying defects data that can be segregated by location. This can show which location to focus efforts on.

Concept Design - The process of determining which technologies will be used in production and the product.

Concurrent Engineering
- (1) A way to reduce cost, improve quality and shrink cycle time by simplifying a product’s system of life cycle tasks during the early concept stages. (2) The reorganization of product design, development, production planning and procurement processes to take place to the extent possible in parallel (more or less at the same time), utilizing multi-disciplinary project teams, electronic information management, and improved communications. (3) The simultaneous performance of product design and process design. Typically, ­concurrent engineering involves the formation of cross-functional teams. This allows engineers and managers of different disciplines to work together simultaneously in developing product and process designs.

Confidence Interval
- A random interval constructed from data in such a way that the probability that the interval contains the true value of the parameter can be specified before the data are collected. An interval computed from sample values. Intervals so constructed will straddle the estimated parameter a certain percentage of the time in repeated sampling.

Conflict Resolution -
The management of a conflict situation to arrive at a resolution satisfactory to all parties.

Conformance: (1) A dimension of quality that refers to the extent to which a product lies within an allowable range of deviation from its specification. (2) An affirmative indication or judgment that a product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract or regulation.

Conformity Assessment - All activities concerned with determining that relevant requirements in standards or regulations are fulfilled, including sampling, testing, inspection, certification, management system assessment and registration, accreditation of the competence of those activities and recognition of an accreditation program’s capability.

- Often used to describe a decision-making process in which formal rules or voting are not used. It usually means that everyone who wishes to, has spoken and has been heard, and while the "consensus decision" may not be everyone's first choice, they can agree to it and can support it.

Consensus -
A state in which all the members of a group support an action or decision, even if some of them don’t fully agree with it.

Constraint - Anything that limits a system from achieving higher performance or throughput; also, the bottleneck that most severely limits the organization’s ability to achieve higher performance relative to its purpose or goal.

Constraints Management - See “theory of constraints.”

Consultant Audits - Inspections that are performed by consultants to determine how an organization should be changed for improvement.

Consultant - An individual who has experience and expertise in applying tools and techniques to resolve process problems and who can advise and facilitate an organization’s improvement efforts.

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) - An independent federal regulatory agency that helps keep American families safe by reducing the risk of injury or death from consumer products.

Consumer - The external customer to whom a product or service is ultimately delivered; also called end user.

Consumer’s Risk - (1) The risk of receiving a shipment of poor quality product and believing that it is good quality. (2) Pertains to sampling and the potential risk that bad products will be accepted and shipped to the consumer.

Contact Personnel -
 The people at the “front lines” who interact with the public in a service setting.

Contingency Theory
- A theory that presupposes that there is no theory or method for operating a business that can be applied in all instances.

Continual Improvement
-recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfil requirements (3.1.2) - acc ti ISO 9000:2005

Continuous Data
- Data that uses some sort of measurement scale e.G. Length, time temperature. It can be broken down into smaller and smaller increments.

Continuous Flow Production -
A method in which items are produced and moved from one processing step to the next, one piece at a time. Each process makes only the one piece that the next process needs, and the transfer batch size is one. Also referred to as one-piece flow and single-piece flow.

Continuous Flow - Moving products through a production system without separating them into lots.

Continuous Improvement (CI) - Sometimes called continual improvement. (1) The ongoing improvement of products, services or processes through incremental and breakthrough improvements. (2) Adopting new activities and eliminating those, which are found to add little or no value. The goal is to increase effectiveness by reducing inefficiencies, frustrations, and waste (time, effort, material, etc). The Japanese term is Kaizen, which is taken from the words "Kai" means change and "zen" means good.

Continuous Quality Improvement
- See CQI

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) -
A philosophy and attitude for analyzing capabilities and processes and improving them repeatedly to achieve customer satisfaction.

Continuous Sampling Plan - In acceptance sampling, a plan, intended for application to a continuous flow of individual units of product, that involves acceptance and rejection on a unit-byunit basis and employs alternate periods of 100% inspection and sampling. The relative amount of 100% inspection depends on the quality of submitted product. Continuous sampling plans usually require that each t period of 100% inspection be continued until a specified number, i, of consecutively inspected units are found clear of defects. Note: For single level continuous sampling plans, a single d sampling rate (for example, inspect one unit in five or one unit in 10) is used during sampling. For multilevel continuous sampling plans, two or more sampling rates can be used. The rate at any time depends on the quality of submitted product.

- Binding agreement - acc to ISO 9000:2005 3.3.8

Contract Review -
 Contract review involves the steps associated with contracting with suppliers. These steps involve acceptance of the contract or order, the tender of a contract, and review of the contract.

- Forgiveness for error or mistake.

- Three commonly-used versions of this word: (supervision)- to influence or manipulate an employee's behavior through the threat of consequences or the promise of reward, whether these are explicit or implied; (engineering)- to influence or manipulate a process through feedback or feedforward; (statistical)- a description of behavior of the variation in the output of a process.

Control Chart
- (1) A graphic comparison between the process's performance and computed limits know as control lines. This statistical method is used to decide when to take action and when to leave a process alone. The charts can identify when statistically unnatural patterns occur so their cause can be investigated. Tool for monitoring process variation. (2) A plot of the process output against time or observation order. The variation observed is used to determine and plot the process average and the upper and lower control limits set at three standard deviation from the average. Observations outside the control limits and other patterns indicate the presence of special cause variation. (3) A chart with upper and lower control limits on which values of some statistical measure for a series of samples or subgroups are plotted. The chart frequently shows a central line to help detect a trend of plotted values toward either control limit. (4) A control chart is a graphical representation of a characteristic of a process, showing plotted values of some statistic, a central line, and one or two control limits. It is used to determine whether a process has been operating in statistical control and is an aid to maintaining statistical control.

Control Charts -
 Tools for monitoring process variation.

Control Factors - Variables in a Taguchi experiment that are under the control of the operator. These can include things such as temperature or type of ingredient.

Control Item - Item selected as a subject of control for maintenance of product quality and rational control action in company-wide Quality Control; a yardstick that measures or judges the setting of a target level, the contents of the work, the process and the results of each stage of breakthrough, and improvement in control during management activity.

Control Limits
- (1) Calculated values representing the expected variation in the process. OR The natural boundaries of a process within specified confidence levels, expressed as the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL). (2) Lines on a control chart used as a basis for judging whether variation in data on a chart is due to special or common causes. These limits are calculated from data collected from the system, they are not specifications or limits set by customers or management.

Control Plan (CP) -
Written descriptions of the systems for controlling part and process quality by addressing the key characteristics and engineering requirements.

Control Process - A process involving gathering process data, analyzing process data, and using this information to make adjustments to the process.

Controlled Document
- A document subject to controls that prevent the unintended use of defective versions of it.

Controlled Experiment
- An experiment that uses the method of comparison to evaluate the effect of a treatment by comparing treated subjects with a control group, who do not receive the treatment.

Conversion Process -
 Aligning the inputs of a process together to form a product or service.

Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) - A device that dimensionally measures 3-D products, tools and components with an accuracy approaching 0.0001 inches.

Corporate Culture
- Popularized in the early 1980's by a book of the same title, this term means the values, the assumptions, the organization's "legends" and heroes, the rituals and folklore that exist in most organizations and get passed along from one person to the next by example or word of mouth.

Corrective Action
- aka CA - Corrective Action action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity or other undesirable situation. OR A solution meant to reduce or eliminate an identified problem.

Corrective Action Recommendation (CAR) -
The full cycle corrective action tool that offers ease and simplicity for employee involvement in the corrective action/process improvement cycle.

Correlation - A measure of linear association between two (ordered) lists. Two variables can be strongly correlated without having any causal relationship, and two variables can have a causal relationship and yet be uncorrelated.

Correlation (Statistical) -
A measure of the relationship between two data sets of variables.

Correlation Coefficient r
- A measure of how nearly a scatterplot falls on a straight line. The correlation coefficient is always between -1 and +1.

Cost Benefit Analysis
- An assessment of the costs of a change against the projected benefits in order to quantify the timing and magnitude of the return on investment.

Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) -
The costs associated with providing poor quality products or services. There are four categories: internal failure costs (costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service), external failure costs (costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service), appraisal costs (costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements) and prevention costs (costs incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to a minimum).

Cost of Quality (COQ)
- (1) Often cited as "the cost of conformance (achieving quality) plus the cost of nonconformance (waste)". This measure of organizational "effectiveness" fails to take into account the unknown and unknowable costs (e.g., the cost of a dissatisfied customer, or the loss to the individual and to society of poor education) and narrowly defines quality as conformance to specifications. (2) Costs associated with providing poor quality products or service. There are four categories of costs: internal failure costs – costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service, external failure costs – costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service, appraisal costs – costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements, and prevention costs – costs incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to a minimum. OR Another term for COPQ. It is considered by some to be synonymous with COPQ but is considered by others to be unique. While the two concepts emphasize the same ideas, some disagree as to which concept came first and which categories are included in each.

Count Chart - A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the count of events of a given classification occurring in a sample; known as a “c-chart.”

Count Per Unit Chart - A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the average count of events of a given classification per unit occurring in a sample.

- (1) A process capabilty index. (2)A capability index that compares the width of a two-sided specification with the variation in the process. Estimated standard deviation is used to calculate the process variation. A Cp larger than 1 indicates that the process variation is narrower than the specification.

Cp: The ratio of tolerance to 6 sigma, or the upper specification limit (USL) minus the lower specification limit (LSL) divided by 6 sigma. It is sometimes referred to as the engineering tolerance divided by the natural tolerance and is only a measure of dispersion.

- (1) An index of how the process is meeting capability with respect to the specification limits. (2) Cpk is a capability index that tells how well a system can meet two-sided specification limits. Because it takes the target value into account, the system does not have to be centered on the target value for this index to be useful. It is calculated with estimated standard deviation. A Cpk greater than 1 indicates that the process can meet the specification.

Cpk index -
Equals the lesser of the USL minus the mean divided by 3 sigma (or the mean) minus the LSL divided by 3 sigma. The greater the Cpk value, the better.

Cpl - A capability index that compares the variation in the process to the lower specification. Estimated standard deviation is used to calculate the process variation. A Cpl greater than 1 indicates the process is capable of meeting the lower specification.

- Is a capability index that shows how well the system can produce output within specifications while taking the target into account. Its calculation uses sigma calculated from the target value instead of the mean.

Cpu - A capability index that compares the variation in the process to the upper specification. Estimated standard deviation is used to calculate the process variation. A Cpu greater than 1 indicates the process is capable of meeting the upper specification.

Cr - Capability ratio compares the variation in a process with the width of a two-sided specification. Estimated standard deviation is used to calculate the process variation. It is the inverse of Cp.

CQI - Continuous Quality Improvement - A term now used by some organizations, ( e.g., Hospitals) in place of TQM

Crawford Slip Method
- Developed by E.C.Crawford, this is a form of brainstorming which attempts to draw from a group of people their ideas on a particular subject. Participants write down each idea on a separate piece of paper, writing as many as they can in a limited period of time. All the different ideas are then compiled into one greater list.

Critical Mass
- Dr. Deming uses this term to refer to that stage when an organization has "recruited" enough of its personnel to a new idea or philosophy that the transformation or change process will now be self-sustaining. Enough people will be behind the idea and will help convert others that the new idea will "take hold".

Critical Processes -
Processes that present serious potential dangers to human life, health and the environment or that risk the loss of significant sums of money or customers.

Critical Value
- The value of the test statistic beyond which we would reject the null hypothesis. The critical value is set so that the probability that the test statistic is beyond the critical value is at most equal to the significance level if the null hypothesis be true.

Criticality - 
A term that refers to how often a failure will occur, how easy it is to diagnose, and whether it can be fixed.

Cross Functional - A term used to describe a process or an activity that crosses the boundary between functions. A cross functional team consists of individuals from more than one organizational unit or function.

Cross Pilot - See “scatter diagram.”

Cross-Functional Teams -
 Teams with members from differing departments and vocations.

- Training an employee to do several different jobs.
cross-training Training an employee to do several different jobs.

Cultural Resistance - A form of resistance based on opposition to the possible social and organizational consequences associated with change.

Culture Change - A major shift in the attitudes, norms, sentiments, beliefs, values, operating principles and behavior of an organization.

Culture, Organizational - A common set of values, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and accepted behaviors shared by individuals within an organization.

Cumulative Sum Control Chart (CUSUM) - A control chart on which the plotted value is the cumulative sum of deviations of successive samples from a target value. The ordinate of each plotted point represents the algebraic sum of the previous ordinate and the most recent deviations from the target.

Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP) - Regulations enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for food and chemical manufacturers and packagers.

Current State Map (CSM)- To analyze the how each step in a process is performing against its key measures. At the start of an improvement initiative to show the steps in the process and the current performance levels for each step. To help identify process steps that can be eliminated or improved.  

- (1) Anyone who is the receiver of the goods or services that are produced. (2) This term is now used to described those persons who receive and use products and/or services, whether they be customers outside the organization (external customers) or coworkers within the same organization...Usually referred to as "internal customers". See also supplier.

Customer Benefits Package (CBP) -
 The package of tangibles and intangibles that make up a service.

Customer Contact - A characteristic of services that notes that customers tend to be more involved in the production of services than they are in manufactured goods.

Customer Co-Production
- The participation of a customer in the delivery of a service product. For example, in many restaurants it is not uncommon for customers to fill their own drinks.

Customer Coproduction -
 The participation of a customer in the delivery of a service product. For example, in many restaurants it is not uncommon for customers to fill their own drinks.

Customer Delight - The result of delivering a product or service that exceeds customer expectations.

Customer Expectations - (1) What customers expect from a service provider; (2) A part of the SERVQUAL questionnaire.

Customer Future Needs
- projection predicting the future needs of customers and designing products that satisfy those needs.

Customer Future Needs Projection -
 Predicting the future needs of customers and designing products that satisfy those needs.

Customer Perceptions - (1) How customers view products or services; (2) The second part of the SERVQUAL survey.

Customer Rationalization - The process of reaching an agreement between marketing and operations as to which customers add the greatest advantage and profits over time.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) - A strategy for learning more about customers’ needs and behaviors to develop stronger relationships with them. It brings together information about customers, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness and market trends. It helps businesses use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behavior of customers and the value of those customers.

Customer Retention - The percentage of customers who return to a service provider or continue to purchase a manufactured product.

Customer Satisfaction - Customer's perception of the degree to which the customer's requirements have been fulfilled. OR The result of delivering a product or service that meets customer requirements.

Customer Service Surveys - Instruments that consists of a series of items (or questions) that are designed to elicit customer perceptions.

Customer - Anyone who is the receiver of the goods or services that are produced.

Customer-Driven quality - Term that refers to a proactive approach to satisfying customer needs.

Customer-Related Ratios
- Ratios that include customer satisfaction, customer dissatisfaction, and comparisons of customer satisfaction relative to competitors.

Customer-Relationship Management
- A view of the customer that asserts that the customer is a valued asset that should be managed.

Customer Service - It is anything we do for the customer that is reliable, reassuring through courtesy and competence, looks good, empathetic and responsive.

Customer-Supplier Model (CSM) - A model depicting inputs flowing into a work process that, in turn, add value and produce outputs delivered to a customer. Also called customer-supplier methodology.

Customer-Supplier Partnership - A long-term relationship between a buyer and supplier characterized by teamwork and mutual confidence. The supplier is considered an extension of the buyer’s organization. The partnership is based on several commitments. The buyer provides long-term contracts and uses fewer suppliers. The supplier implements quality assurance processes so incoming inspection can be minimized. The supplier also helps the buyer reduce costs and improve product and process designs.

Cycle Time - (1) The time it takes to do one repetition of any particular task typically measured from "Start to Start" the starting point of one product's processing in a specified machine or operation until the start of another similar product's processing in the same machine or process. Total Cycle Time needs to be less than your "Takt Time." (2) The time required to complete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time for every operation in a complete process can be reduced to equal takt time, products can be made in single-piece flow.

Cycle - A sequence of operations repeated regularly.