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The Complete Lean Shop
Glossary - F

5W2H - Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How, How Much.

– (1) In a group meeting, to serve as a supporter of the meeting process, helping the group move through its agenda to its desired outcome, but not getting personally involved in the meeting content. (2) To "facilitate" efforts means to be help make things happen more readily or effectively.

- Helping a team or individual achieve a goal. Often used in meeting or with teams to help the teams achieve their objectives.

Facilitator -
(1) A specifically trained person who functions as a teacher, coach and moderator for a group, team or organization. (2) The person who performs facilitation. This person may be trained in group dynamics, teamwork, and meeting management methods.

Factorial Experiments
- Structured techniques for building a model of how two or more input variables affect an output variable. This technique is allows the discovery of interactions between input variables. The result of factorial experiment is a model that predicts how much each input, and all possible combinations of the inputs, influence the output.

- First Article Inspection.

Failure Cost -
(1) The cost resulting from the occurrence of defects. One element of cost of quality or cost of poor quality. (2) Two sets of costs—internal failure costs and external failure costs. Internal failure costs include those costs that are associated with failure during production, whereas external failure costs are as­sociated with product failure after the production process.

Failure Mode Analysis (FMA) -
A procedure to determine which malfunction symptoms appear immediately before or after a failure of a critical parameter in a system. After all possible causes are listed for each symptom, the product is designed to eliminate the problems.

Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) - (1) A procedure performed after a failure mode effects analysis to classify each potential failure effect according to its severity and probability of occurrence. (2) FMECA is an extensive but simple method for identifying ways in which an engineered system could fail. The primary goal of FMECA is to develop priorities for corrective action based on estimated risk.

Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis
- (FMECA) - An extensive but simple method for identifying ways in which an engineered system could fail. The primary goal of FMECA is to develop priorities for corrective action based on estimated risk.

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) -
(1) A systematic/structured approach for determining the seriousness of potential failures and for identifying the sources of each potential failure. (2) Method for systematically considering each component of a ­system by identifying, analyzing, and documenting the possible failure modes within a system and the effects of each failure on the system. (3) A systematized group of activities to recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product or process and its effects, identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the occurrence of the potential failure and document the process.

The inability of an item, product or service to perform required functions on demand due to one or more defects.

False Discovery Rate
- The fraction of rejected null hypotheses that are rejected erroneously (the number of type i errors divided by the number of rejected null hypotheses), with the convention that if no hypothesis is rejected, the false discovery rate is zero.

Fault Tree Analysis -
 (1) An analytical tool that graphically renders the combination of faults that lead to the failure of a system. (2) To identify the causes of process problems. To analyze the root cause of process problems. In the design phase of a process, it can be used to ensure the proper controls are in place in the process for quality and safety.

Features -
 A dimension of quality that refers to those attributes of a product that supplement the item’s basic performance.

Feeder Lines -
A series of special assembly lines that allow assemblers to perform preassembly tasks off the main production line. Performing certain processes off the main production line means fewer parts in the main assembly area, the availability of service ready components and assemblies in the main production area, improved quality and less lead time to build a product.

Final Product Definition -
 The process of articulating the final drawings and specifications for a product.

Financial Analysis -
To determine whether the savings of a solution implementation justify the costs for it. When required by your organization. When analyzing solutions or other changes to a process or product to determine if it would be fiscally responsible to make the investment.

Financial Benchmarking
- A type of benchmarking that typically involves using cd rom databases such as lexis/nexis or compact disclosure to gather information about competing firms to perform financial analyses and compare results.

Financial Ratios
- Numerical ratios of firm performance such as return on equity, return on assets, and earnings per share.

Fire Fighting
- Spending one's time solving endless daily problems without improving the process or system that created them.

First Article
- Including First Article Inspection

First In First Out (F.I.F.O.) -
A system for keeping track of the order in which information or materials are to be processed. The goal of FIFO is to prevent earlier orders from being delayed in favor of newer orders which would result in increased lead time and unhappy customers regarding the earlier orders. Use of material produced by one process in the same order by the next process. A FIFO queue is filled by the supplying process and emptied by the customer process. When a FIFO lane gets full, production is stopped until the next (internal) customer has used some of that inventory.

First Pass Yield (FPY) -
Also referred to as the quality rate, the percentage of units that completes a process and meets quality guidelines without being scrapped, rerun, retested, returned or diverted into an offline repair area. FPY is calculated by dividing the units entering the process minus the defective units by the total number of units entering the process.

First Time Quality (FTQ) -
Calculation of the percentage of good parts at the beginning of a production run.

Fishbone Diagram
- Also known as a Cause and Effect Diagram or an Ishikawa Diagram, this is a tool for study of processes. It shows possible causes of an effect on the "bones" branching out from a line representing the process which produces the effect. Its primary limitation is that it has no means for adequately showing the possible inter-relationships of the various causes. OR A problem-solving tool that uses a graphic description of the various process elements to analyze potential sources of variation, or problems. The Diagram itself resembles (somewhat) the skeleton of a fish.

Fishing Expedition
- Gathering data without any clear idea of what you are looking for, nor any plan for carefully investigating an issue.

Fitness for use -
A term used to indicate that a product or service fits the customer’s defined purpose for that product or service.

Five S (aka 5S) - Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke
- A process for inducing discipline in an organization. Five terms beginning with "s" utilized to create a workplace suited for visual control and lean production. Seiri (sort) means to separate needed tools, parts, and instructions from unneeded materials and to remove the latter. Seiton (set in order) means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. Seiso (shine) means to conduct a cleanup campaign. Seiketsu (standardize) means to conduct Seiri, Seiton, and Seiso at frequent, indeed daily, intervals to maintain a workplace in perfect condition. Shitsuke (sustain) means to form the habit of always following the first four s's.

Five Whys -
A technique for discovering the root causes of a problem and showing the relationship of causes by repeatedly asking the question, “Why?”

Five-Phase Lean Approach - A systematic method for implementing lean manufacturing that helps improve the production process and sustains gains made in the production cycle in an area or plant. The five phases are: 1. stability (provides an environment with controlled process variables, decreased waste and increased business impact); 2. continuous flow (characterized by reduced work in process inventory, time loss and defects, and increased process flexibility and repeatable processes between workstations); 3. synchronous production (characterized by disciplined process repeatability and synchronization between operations and customer requirements); 4. pull system (creates an environment in which material replenishment links operations with customer demand); 5. level production (reduces response time or changes in demand and upstream schedule variability).

Flexible Automation - Highly mechanized (often robotic) method for switching from one product type or style to another product type or style. Key in FA is automatic changeovers of dies, materials such as adhesives, and usually small components.

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) - A manufacturing process/system designed so that production areas (such as work cells or lines) can be changed and rebalanced often to adjust labor and materials to better meet and match demand.

Flow Chart - (1) A visual depiction of the steps in a process or system. Simple Flow Charts help in illustrating every step in a process in a concrete way so they can then be analyzed for improvement opportunities and division of labor etc. (2) A graphical representation of the steps in a process. Flowcharts are drawn to better understand processes. One of the “Seven tools of quality”.

Flow Kaizen - Radical improvement, usually applied only once within a value stream.

Flow - The progressive achievement of tasks along the value stream so a product proceeds from design to launch, order to delivery and raw to finished materials in the hands of the customer with no stoppages, scrap or backflows.

Flowchart, Flow Chart
- A pictorial representation of the progression of a particular process over time. Generally, a pictorial display of the sequence of actions taken in a process or in carrying out a task. There are several types of flow charts or flow diagrams: 1) top down - detailed steps are listed under headings describing major actions. 2) Logic flow - a symbolic display of the logical sequence of actions and decisions in a process. 3) Deployment flow - actions, decisions, meetings, etc., Are listed sequentially and in columns according to the individual, group or function responsible for, or participating in, the particular step. 4) Organization viewed as a system - a picture of an entire organization's components and its customers and suppliers as a system, beginning with customer research and ending with customers who use the output.

- Failure modes effects analysis. A quality planning method that involves thinking about what might go wrong, what are the chances of it going wrong and what might be the consequences of it going wrong, leading to a plan for prevention and/or containment.

Focus Group
- A group of people who are brought together and are asked to share their opinions about a particular product or service. OR a group, usually of eight to 10 people, that is invited to discuss an existing or planned product, service or process.

Force Field Analysis -
(1) To show how process variables or factors impact the process status quo. When looking at a complex situation to organize the variables that affect the situation in one direction or another. Arrows are drawn to signify the forces pushing on an issue or situation. The relative size of each arrow should be adjusted to indicate its relative impact on the issue. Parties from all aspects of the issue or situation should be involved in setting up the force field. (2) A technique for analyzing what aids or hinders an organization in reaching an objective. An arrow pointing to an objective is drawn down the middle of a piece of paper. The factors that will aid the objective’s achievement, called the driving forces, are listed on the left side of the arrow. The factors that will hinder its achievement, called the restraining forces, are listed on the right side of the arrow. (3) A commonly used method of examining the conditions or forces which tend to drive a particular action or change as well as the forces which tend to prevent that action or change from occurring or succeeding. Once listed, strategies can then be devised to either increase one or more of the driving forces or decrease one or more of the blocking forces or some combination of both in order to move closer to the desired goal.

Forced Ranking - To use a group’s expertise to select from among options. With a team and when there are limited data to help select an option or a solution to a problem. This technique forces the team to directly compare options relative to each. Like the Nominal Group Technique, this technique is only as good as the skills and knowledge of the team that it using it. Forced Ranking should not be used as a substitute for collecting data (especially during root cause analysis).

- The first stage of team development, where the team is formed and the objectives for the team are set.

Frequency Distribution
- A statistical table that presents a large volume of data in such a way that the central tendency (average/mean/median) and distribution are clearly displayed.

FSM - Future State Map

- Fault Tree Analysis

Full-Baldrige Approach
- Term used to depict states’ quality award programs using the same criteria as the Malcolm Baldrige national quality award.

Function -
A group of related actions contributing to a larger action.

Functional Benchmarking
- A type of benchmarking that involves the sharing of information among firms that are interested in the same functional issues.

Functional Layout -
The practice of grouping machines (such as grinding machines) or activities (such as order entry) by type of operation performed.

Functional Verification -
Testing to ensure a part conforms to all engineering performance and material requirements.

Fundamental Rule of Counting
- If a sequence of experiments or trials t1, t2, t3, . . . , tk could result, respectively, in n1, n2 n3, . . . , nk possible outcomes, and the numbers n1, n2 n3, . . . , nk do not depend on which outcomes actually occurred, the entire sequence of k experiments has n1_ n2 _ n3_ . . . _ nk possible outcomes.

Funnel Experiment
- A term referring to the experiment Deming describes to illustrate the futility and damage of adjusting a stable process in reaction to each outcome to try to affect subsequent results as desired. There are four rules of the funnel, three of which amount to tampering and produce more variation than if the process were left alone [see chapter 11 in Deming's out of the crisis]. See "tampering". Or an experiment that demonstrates the effects of tampering. Marbles are dropped through a funnel in an attempt to hit a flat surfaced target below. The experiment shows that adjusting a stable process to compensate for an undesirable result or an extraordinarily good result will produce output that is worse than if the process had been left alone.