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The Complete Lean Shop
Glossary - G

Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R) - The evaluation of a gauging instrument’s accuracy by determining whether its measurements are repeatable (there is close agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of the input under the same operating conditions) and reproducible (there is close agreement among repeated measurements of the output for the same value of input made under the same operating conditions over a period of time).

Gain Sharing -
A reward system that shares the monetary results of productivity gains among owners and employees.

Gantt Chart -
(1) A type of bar chart used in process planning and control to display planned and finished work in relation to time. (2) The Gantt Chart is a display tool that shows the steps in the activity plan relative to a time scale. After an activity plan has been created to show when tasks need to be started and completed. (3) Project planning tool illustrating activities vs. timing

- The difference between desired levels of performance and actual levels of performance.

Gap Analysis -
(1) The comparison of a current condition to the desired state. (2) A term associated with the SERVQUAL survey instrument, gap analysis is a technique designed to assess the gap that can exist between a service that is offered and customer expectations. (3) A formal study of the gaps between what exists and what needs, or ought, to exist.

Gap - The difference between desired levels of performance and actual levels of performance.

Gatekeeper -
A timekeeper; in team meetings, a designated individual who helps monitor the team’s use of allocated time.

Gauge R&R
- aka Gage R&R - Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility - A means of checking how much the measurement system itself is contributing to process variability.

Gemba -
A Japanese term that means "Real Place" or "Where the action takes place." In Lean we speak of GEMBA as being the place where "Value" is added to a product. See "Value Adding" In the most practical sense Lean attempts to make everything in a factory "GEMBA" or a value adding process or location. The antonym of GEMBA is MUDA or "Waste" which Lean practitioners do all in their power to eliminate. OR Japanese term meaning "the shop floor"

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) -
A set of rules and standard symbols to define part features and relationships on an engineering drawing depicting the geometric relationship of part features and allowing the maximum tolerance that permits full function of the product.

Geometric Mean
- The geometric mean of n numbers {x1, x2, x3, . . . , Xn} is the nth root of their product:

Geometric Modelling
- A technique used to develop a computer-based mathematical description of a part.

- An approach to international markets that requires a firm to make fundamental changes in the nature of its business by establishing production and marketing facilities in foreign markets.

Go/no-go -
State of a unit or product. Two parameters are possible: go (conforms to specifications) and no-go (does not conform to specifications).

Goal -
A broad statement describing a desired future condition or achievement without being specific about how much and when.

Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) or 21 CFR, part 58 -
144 requirements that control the procedures and operations of toxicology laboratories.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) or 21 CFR, parts 808, 812 and 820 -
Requirements governing the quality procedures of medical device manufacturers.

Goodness-Of-Fit Test
- A statistical test to determine whether there is significant difference between the observed Frequency Distribution and a theoretical probability distribution which is hypothesized to describe the observed distribution.

- Category or rank given to different quality requirements (3.1.2) for products (3.4.2), processes (3.4.1), or systems (3.2.1) having the same functional use

Green Belt (GB) -
An employee who has been trained in the Six Sigma improvement method and will lead a process improvement or quality improvement team as part of his or her full-time job.

Green Manufacturing -
 A method for manufacturing that minimizes waste and pollution. These goals are often achieved through product and process design.

Group "Memory"
- A term used by meeting facilitators to describe any method for recording and displaying the pertinent points, questions, concerns, decisions, actions, plans, etc. of a group of people working together on a common task. This is often done with "flipcharts" which allows each page to be torn off and placed either in sequence or in some other logical order in the room. This gives the whole group quick and easy reference to their work, and provides visible evidence of the group's progress.

Group Decision
- Support system a computer system that allows users to anonymously input comments in a focus group type of setting.

Group Decision Support System -
 A computer system that allows users to anonymously input comments in a focus group type of setting.

Group Dynamic -
The interaction (behavior) of individuals within a team meeting.

Group Technology (GT) (A.k.a. Part Families) -
(1) Group Technology separates parts into "Families" or groups that have similar needs with respect to manufacturing processes. Parts may be "grouped" by size weight, color, flavor, chemistry, treatments/special processing needed, etc. Creating "Part Families" or "Groups" can result in lower inventories, reduced consumption of process resources, and many other benefits. (2) A component of CAD that allows for the cataloging and standardization of parts and components for complex products.

Groupthink -
A situation in which critical information is withheld from the team because individual members censor or restrain themselves, either because they believe their concerns are not worth discussing or because they are afraid of confrontation.