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The Complete Lean Shop
Glossary - M

Machine Capability - aka Cmk

- The probability that a failed system can be made operable in a specified interval or downtime.

Maintainability has two categories -
serviceability (the ease of conducting scheduled inspections and servicing) and reparability (the ease of restoring service after a failure). The probability that a given maintenance action for an item under given usage conditions can be performed within a stated time interval when the maintenance is performed under stated conditions using stated procedures and resources.

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award - The annual self-evaluation covers the following seven categories of criteria:

  • Leadership
  • Strategic Planning
  • Customer and Market Focus
  • Information and Analysis
  • Human Resource Focus
  • Process Management
  • Business Results
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a federal agency within the Department of Commerce, is responsible for managing the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. The American Society for Quality (ASQ) administers the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award under a contract with NIST.

- The result of mistakes made by a professional service provider.

- "Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization" (3.3.1) according to ISO 9000 3.2.6

Management By Fact
- A core value of the Baldrige award that focuses on data-based decision making.

Management Review
- Typically a formal evaluation by top management of the status and adequacy of the quality system in relation to quality policy and objectives. OR A periodic management meeting to review the status and effectiveness of the organization’s quality management system.

Management System
- " system (3.1.2) to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives" (3.2.2) according to ISO 9000

Manager -
An individual charged with managing resources and processes.

Manufacturability -
The extent to which a product can be efficiently manufactured with maximum reliability. Many products are very difficult to produce and are very often not designed to be mass produced. Product designers need to work closely with engineering, production, tooling, and even operators when developing products that must later be produced in the thousands or millions. A coordinated effort can make an enormous difference to ultimate successful production.

Manufacturing Execution System (MES) -
A networked computing system used to automate production control and process automation through intercommunication between production scheduling, work scheduling and production throughput to bridge gaps that might appear between these functions.

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) -
Material requirements planning (see listing), plus capacity planning and finance, interface to translate operational planning into financial terms and into a simulation tool to assess alternative production plans.

Manufacturing System Design
- The process of designing a manufacturing system.

Manufacturing Test/Verify - The process for assuring that products have been produced and function as designed.

Manufacturing -
The practice of planning, designing, and managing people and machinery to produce useable products.

Manufacturing-Based - 
Dimensions of quality that are production related.

Mapping symbols or Icons -
An easy, effective way to communicate the flow of materials and information through a plant. The symbol type doesn’t matter, as long as the use is consistent from map to map. Mapping the flow helps identify constraints and potential improvement opportunities.

Margin of Error
- A measure of the uncertainty in an estimate of a parameter;. The margin of error of an estimate is typically one or two times the estimated standard error of the estimate.

Market Share Data
- A comparative measure that determines relative positions of firms in the marketplace.

Mass Customization -
A production system that stresses the production of relatively small lots of customized or somewhat unique goods.

Master Black Belt (MBB) -
Six Sigma or quality expert responsible for strategic implementations in an organization. An MBB is qualified to teach other Six Sigma facilitators the methods, tools and applications in all functions and levels of the company and is a resource for using statistical process control in processes.

Master Schedule -
Overall sequenced schedule of multiple orders through a factory.

Material Handling -
Methods, equipment and systems for conveying materials to various machines and processing areas and for transferring finished parts to assembly, packaging and shipping areas.

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) -
(1) A computerized system typically used to determine the quantity and timing requirements for production and delivery of items to both customers and suppliers. Using MRP to schedule production at various processes will result in push production because any predetermined schedule is an estimate only of what the next process will actually need. (2) Using software, materials planning is accomplished through evaluating the Bill of Materials (BOM), Inventory Data, and the Master Schedule in order to stimulate replenishment of materials to be consumed and present purchase orders (PO's) for future materials needed.

Material Review Board
- aka MRB

Materials Handling -
The function of moving objects from one location to another.

Matrix Diagram - A brainstorming tool that can be used in a group to show the relationships between ideas or issues.

Matrix -
A planning tool for displaying the relationships among various data sets.

Maximum Acceptable Subgroup Size - When a varying sample size is being used in a p or u-control chart, the maximum acceptable sample size is usually a sample size that is twenty-five percent larger than the average sample size. Any subgroup with a sample size larger than the maximum acceptable subgroup size has to have control limits calculated specifically for that subgroup.

- Management-By-Objective - A term used to describe a method for achieving organizational objectives. Top management would set broad goals, then each subsequent layer below would identify how it would support and implement those goals, providing greater and greater degrees of detail. Dr. Deming notes that the result of MBO as practiced, will likely be suboptimization of the organization. Because there is a strong tendency to focus on the result (numbers), rather than on the systems and processes that produce those numbers, and because the typical reward system emphasizes the importance of those numbers, employees find ways to give management the numbers, often by taking actions that are not in the best interests of the organization.

- (1) The average of a collection of numbers, the mean of a population is represented by m and represents the mean of a sample. (2) A measure of central tendency; the arithmetic average of all measurements in a data set. (3) Another term for average, it is an indicator of the central location of a set of data. It is found by adding all the individual values and dividing by the number of values.

Means - Guidelines for achieving target; priority action items in policy deployment approach.

Mean Squared Error
aka MSE - Expected value of the square of the difference between the estimator and the parameter. The MSE measures how far the estimator is off from what it is trying to estimate, on the average in repeated experiments. It is a summary measure of the accuracy of the estimator. It combines any tendency of the estimator to overshoot or undershoot the truth (bias), and the variability of the estimator (se).

Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) -
The average time interval between failures for repairable product for a defined unit of measure; for example, operating hours, cycles and miles.

Measure -
The criteria, metric or means to which a comparison is made with output.

- A process for making an observation or evaluation. Like any process, measurement involves the interaction of people, methods, materials, and equipment in an environment to produce an output in this case a number or evaluation. To extract meaning from measurements, the measurement process must be stable (in statistical control).

Measurement System -
(1) All operations, procedures, devices and other equipment or personnel used to assign a value to the characteristic being measured. (2) A measurement system consists of the people, procedures, systems, and devices used to take measurements.

Measurement Systems Analysis aka MSA
- Analysis of the complete process of obtaining measurements. This includes the collection of equipment, operations, procedures, software and personnel that affects the assignment of a number to a measurement characteristic. Includes, but is not limited to, Gage R&R.

Measurement Uncertainty -
The result of random effects and imperfect correction of systemic effects in obtaining a measurement value that results in variation from the actual true value; also known as measurement error.

Measurement -
The act or process of quantitatively comparing results with requirements.

- (1) The middle value in a set of a data. OR The middle number or center value of a set of data in which all the data are arranged in sequence. (2) The middle number in a set of data when it is ranked from lowest to highest, it is an indicator of central location in a data set.

Meeting Management
- A term that refers to the effective management of meeting in an organization.

Metric -
A standard for measurement.

Metrics - Measurements that are tracked to maintain strategic items. Strategic items are those things that must be maintained while working on strategic objectives and focal point items.

Metrology -
The science of weights and measures or of measurement; a system of weights and measures.

- Focused on details and minutia to the point of failing to see the larger picture.

Milky Way Training
- A term coined by Dr.Deming to describe worker training worker (and thereby passing errors, personal bias, inconsistencies, etc. From one worker to the next), leading further and further away from the desired target, thereby "going off to the milky way"

MIL-Q-9858 A
- A military standard that describes quality program requirements

- A military standard that describes the sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes

MIL-STD-45662 A
- A military standard that describes the requirements for creating and maintaining a calibration system for measurement and test equipment.

Minimum Acceptable Subgroup Size - When a varying sample size is being used in a p or u-control chart, the minimum acceptable sample size is usually a sample size that is twenty-five percent smaller than the average sample size. Any subgroup with a sample size smaller than the minimum acceptable subgroup size has to have control limits calculated specifically for that subgroup.

- An organization’s purpose.

Mistake proofing -
Use of production or design features to prevent the manufacture or passing downstream a nonconforming product; also known as “error proofing.”

Mixed/Level-Loaded Production Also known as "Heijunka" -
Mixed/Level-Loaded Production provides a system for advanced scheduling of production activities. This tool allows you to reduce inventory, decrease lead-times, and produce the variety of products your customers want, as they want them. Many Lean tools should already be in place to properly use and maintain a Heijunka scheduling system.

- (1) The value which occurs most frequently in a set of data. (2) Is the number that occurs most frequently in a data set. It is usually an indicator of central location.

Moment of Truth
- In a service context, the phrase “moment of truth” refers to the point in a service experience at which the customer expects something to happen.

Moment of Truth Analysis
- A tool that helps identify and capture customer perceptions about a process.

Monument -
Any design, scheduling or production technology with scale requirements that call for designs, orders and products to be brought to the machine to wait in line for processing. The opposite of a right sized (see listing) machine.

Moving range - The difference between consecutive subgroup values on an X-MR control chart. The moving range is used as a measure of variability.

Moving Range Chart - The moving range portion of an individuals and moving range control chart. The moving ranges are plotted on the chart and compared with control limits

MR Chart - A chart for plotting variables when samples are not possible.

- aka Material Review Board

- a Japanese term indicating efforts that do not add value (waste). Some categories of muda are defects, over production or excess inventory, idle time and poor layout. OR Japanese for waste; any activity that consumes resources but creates no value for the customer.

Multi Functional Teams -
Groups formed from people with varying skill-sets typically across departments to achieve a business goal. Groups become "Teams" when they behave like teams. Using Multi functional Teams can be of great benefit to most companies especially when they work with complex issues that require expertise from numerous backgrounds. Kaizen events will create a "Kaizen Team" that includes operators form the area we are working on, staff from "feeding" and "supplying" areas, a supervisor, a maintenance tech, perhaps a secretary, and maybe even a janitor.

Multilevel Approach
- Term used to depict state quality award programs that include two levels: a top level based on the full-baldrige criteria and a second level based on the baldrige-lite approach.

Multiple skills systems:
 A method for developing employees so that they can perform more than a single task.

Multi-user-CAD systems -
 Computer aided design systems that are networked so that multiple designers can work on a single design simultaneously.

Multi-Vari Chart
- A chart that displays the variance within units, between units, between samples and between lots. It is useful in detecting variation sources within a process.

Multi-Vari Studies
- Methods to observe a process as it runs in its normal state. By noting the state of input variables, and the simultaneous state of output variables, basic correlation can be quantified. Sometimes a study such as this will reveal the sources of problems, while in other cases, the outputs of the study become the inputs to a factorial experiment.

Multivariate Analysis -
To identify if many process variables act together to impact the output of a process. To look at any number of the input and output variables in a process at the same time and identify unusual combinations of these variables.

Multivariate Control Chart -
A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the levels of two or more variables or characteristics