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Glossary - Q

Q9000 Series - Refers to ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9000 series of standards, which is the verbatim American adoption of the 2000 edition of the ISO 9000 series standards.

QEDS Standards Group -
The U.S. Standards Group on Quality, Environment, Dependability and Statistics consists of the members and leadership of organizations concerned with the development and effective use of generic and sector specific standards on quality control, assurance and management; environmental management systems and auditing, dependability and the application of statistical methods.

- Quality Manual

- Quality Management System

QS 9000 -
 (1) A supplier development program developed by a Chrysler/Ford/General Motors supplier requirement task force. The purpose of QS 9000 is to provide a common standard and a set of procedures for the suppliers of the three companies. (2) A quality system/standard, based on ISO 9000, used by the American Automobile Manufacturers to register their suppliers. (3) Harmonized quality management system requirements developed by the Big Three automakers for the automotive sector. Replaced by Technical Specification 16949 effective Dec. 15, 2006. Also see “ISO/TS 16949.” (4) A supplier development program developed by a consortium of chrysler/ford/general motors supplier requirement task force. The purpose of QS-9000 is to provide a common standard and a set of procedures for the suppliers of the three companies. QS-9000 quality system requirements for suppliers to daimler chrysler, ford and general motors will be obsolete the end of 2006, replaced by ISO/TS 16949.

- Quality System Manual

Quad of Aims
- A tool for ensuring aims are smart be consideration of purpose, customer and benefits, measures of success and deliverables

Qualitician -
Someone who functions as both a quality practitioner and a quality technician.

- Attempts to define this term are legion. Working definitions have progressed from "meeting customer specifications" to "satisfying the customer", to "meeting and exceeding customer expectations", but even this last definition puts an unnecessary boundary on quality, because it is limited to the customer's current information and perspective. Deming points out that many innovations have occurred because the creator of a product or service was able to develop a new idea that was not even imagined by the customer.

  • Totality of characteristics of a particular product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy implicit and explicit needs of the customers.
  • Conformance to customer request.
  • Degree of excellence.
  • Fitness for purpose or Achieving Customer Satisfaction
  • Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements of customers and other interested parties

Quality Assurance
- (1) Those activities associated with assuring the quality of a product or service. (2) part of quality management

Quality Assurance Control Charts
- Also known as product acceptance charts. QA charts are the application of statistical techniques to the finished product testing data. Depending on the sampling techniques, QA charts may or may not represent statistical control of the manufacturing process.

Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) -
Two terms that have many interpretations because of the multiple definitions for the words “assurance” and “control.” For example, “assurance” can mean the act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain; “control” can mean an evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses, the act of guiding or the state of a process in which the variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes. (For a detailed discussion on the multiple definitions, see ANSI/ISO/ASQ A3534-2, Statistics—Vocabulary and Symbols—Statistical Quality Control.) One definition of quality assurance is: all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements for quality. One definition for quality control is: the operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality. Often, however, “quality assurance” and “quality control” are used interchangeably, referring to the actions performed to ensure the quality of a product, service or process.

Quality at the Source
- A method of process control whereby each worker is responsible for his or her own work and performs needed inspections at each stage of the process.

Quality Audit -
(1) A systematic and usually independent examination of a companies commitment to quality practices to verify if quality related activities are implemented effectively and comply with the company's or industries quality systems and/or quality standards. (2) A systematic, independent examination and review to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with plans and whether these plans are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the objectives.

Quality Circle -
A quality improvement or self-improvement study group composed of a small number of employees (10 or fewer) and their supervisor. Quality circles originated in Japan, where they are called quality control circles.

Quality Circles -
 Brainstorming sessions involving employees of a firm whose goal is improving processes and process capability.

Quality Control
- (1) The process relating to gathering process data and analyzing the data to determine whether the process exhibits nonrandom variation. (2) Broadest term used for the control of quality of a product by whatever methods are available. It includes instrument feedback loops, performance measurement and comparison to standards and responses based on that information and experience.

Quality Costs:
See “cost of poor quality.”

Quality Council - The central coordinating quality committee. These are the EVP's, AVP's, Directors, and Consultants.

Quality Dimensions -
 Aspects of quality that help to better define what quality is. These include perceived quality, conformance, reliability, durability, and so on.

Quality Engineering -
The analysis of a manufacturing system at all stages to maximize the quality of the process itself and the products it produces. Quality Excellence for Suppliers of Telecommunications

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) -
(1) A structured method in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production. The QFD process is often referred to as listening to the voice of the customer. (2) QFD involves developing a matrix that includes customer preferences and product attributes. A QFD matrix allows a firm to quantitatively analyze the relationship between customer needs and design attributes.

Quality Improvement
- Part of quality management (3.2.8) focused on increasing the ability to fulfil quality requirements - acc to ISO9000:2005 3.2.12. The organized creation of beneficial changes in process performance levels.

Quality Improvement System -
 The result of the interactions between the various components that defines the quality policy in a firm.

Quality Loss Function (QLF) - 
(1) A function that determines economic penalties that the customer incurs as a result of purchasing a nonconforming product. (2) A parabolic approximation of the quality loss that occurs when a quality characteristic deviates from its target value. The quality loss function is expressed in monetary units: the cost of deviating from the target increases quadratically the farther the quality characteristic moves from the target. The formula used to compute the quality loss function depends on the type of quality characteristic being used. The quality loss function was first introduced in this form by Genichi Taguchi. (3) A function that determines economic penalties that the customer incurs as a result of purchasing a nonconforming product.

Quality Management (QM) -
The application of a quality management system in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process. OR The management processes that overarch and tie together quality control and quality assurance activities.

Quality Management Representative (QMR) - The appointed person by management, who ensure that the quality system is established, implemented, maintained and reports the performance of the quality system to management.

Quality management System (QMS) -
(1) A formalized system that documents the structure, responsibilities and procedures required to achieve effective quality management. (2) This is a documented and maintained quality system for improvement. This includes the organizations policies, requirements and process documents that reflect the best practices of the organization conforms to specified requirements of international standard.

Quality Manual
- The chief document for standard operating procedures, processes and specifications that define a quality management system. The manual serves as a permanent reference guide for the implementation and maintenance of the quality management system described by the manual.

Quality Maturity Analysis (QMA) -
 A study in which a firm’s level of maturity relating to quality practices is ­assessed.

Quality Measures
- Ratios that are used to measure a firm’s performance in the area of quality management.

Quality Objective
- Something sought, or aimed for, related to quality

Quality Plan
- Integrates quality philosophies into an organization’s environment. The plan will include specific continuous improvement strategies and actions. Plans are developed at all levels from company to plant. Lower level plans should support the company’s strategic objectives. A quality plan emphasizes defect prevention through continuous improvement rather tha defect detection. OR A document or set of documents that describe the standards, quality practices, resources and processes pertinent to a specific product, service or project.

Quality Planning
- Part of quality management focused on setting quality objectives and specifying necessary operational processes and related resources to fulfill the quality objectives - acc to ISO9000:2005 3.2.9

Quality Policy:
An organization’s general statement of its beliefs about quality, how quality will come about and its expected result. OR The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.

Quality Rate -
See “first pass yield.”

Quality Records
- Written verification that a company’s methods, systems, and processes were performed according to the quality system documentation such as inspection or test results, internal audit results and calibration data.

Quality Score Chart -
A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process. The quality score is the weighted sum of the count of events of various classifications in which each classification is assigned a weight.

Quality System - Organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management.

Quality System Review
- A formal evaluation by management of the status and adequacy of the quality system in relation to quality policy and/or new objectives resulting from changing circumstances.

Quality Tool -
An instrument or technique to support and improve the activities of process quality management and improvement.

Quality Trilogy -
A three-pronged approach to managing for quality. The three legs are quality planning (developing the products and processes required to meet customer needs), quality control (meeting product and process goals) and quality improvement (achieving unprecedented levels of performance).

Quality -
A subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition. In technical usage, quality can have two meanings: 1. the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; 2. a product or service free of deficiencies. According to Joseph Juran, quality means “fitness for use;” according to Philip Crosby, it means “conformance to requirements.”

Quality-by-Design -
The process used to design quality into products, service, or processes during the product development phase. It is always better to "start with quality" rather than to try and "build quality in."

Queue time -
The time a product spends in a line awaiting the next design, order processing or fabrication step.

Quick Changeover -
The ability to change tooling and fixtures rapidly (usually within minutes) so multiple products can be run on the same machine.

Quincunx -
A tool that creates frequency distributions. Beads tumble over numerous horizontal rows of pins, which force the beads to the right or left. After a random journey, the beads are dropped into vertical slots. After many beads are dropped, a frequency distribution results. Quincunxes are often used in classrooms to simulate a manufacturing process. The quincunx was invented by English scientist Francis Galton in the 1890s.